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Why Converters Fail
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Why Catalytic Converters Fail

A catalytic converter will rarely fail without a problem or malfunction occurring somewhere in the emission system in front of the converter. It is important to determine what caused the converter to fail so that the problem can be fixed and to prevent a recurrence of the failure.

 
  Converter Meltdown.
This is an example of a converter meltdown. The converter was super-heated due to a raw fuel condition in the exhaust flow. The excess unburned fuel ignited when it struck the hot ceramic catalyst and drove the temperature far above the normal operating condition of the converter. The ceramic catalyst is unable to withstand the extremely high temperature and begins to melt. The ceramic collapses and the converter is destroyed. The melted ceramic may block the exhaust flow and cause additional damage to the engine. A converter glowing red-hot, or evidence of heat discoloration, confirms this situation.

The condition that led to this converter meltdown could be the result of a number of malfunctions including faulty oxygen sensor, an incorrect fuel mixture, worn spark plugs or plug wires, a faulty check valve, incorrect ignition timing, sticking float, faulty fuel injectors or other ignition malfunctions.

   
Carbon Deposits.
This is an example of a converter with carbon deposits in the ceramic catalyst. This is usually a result of oil or antifreeze entering the exhaust system or a too-rich fuel mixture. The heavy carbon deposit clogs the converter and reduces exhaust flow. This increases backpressure and causes the entire exhaust system to heat up. The heat backs up into the engine compartment and may result in a number of heat-related engine problems.

Mild carbon scoring may do less damage to engine components but it may seriously affect the converter’s ability to reduce harmful emissions. It could easily cause a vehicle to fail an emission test.

Carbon deposits may be the result of faulty valves, worn piston rings, worn or leaking gaskets or lead in the fuel.

   
Catalyst Fracture.
This is an example of a catalyst fracture. The ceramic became loose, cracked and began to break down. The pieces began to obstruct flow, creating backpressure and increasing the heat in the exhaust system. There is evidence of a partial meltdown in this example due to overheating.

The initial cause for this damage could have been road debris striking the converter based on evidence of impact on the converter shell. In some cases, if the protective mat that holds the catalyst in place is directly exposed to exhaust gasses, it could deteriorate and allow the catalyst to fracture.


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